From inception development occurs in patterns and sequences, we are looking at how development take place from one particular level to another.
If a child is given birth, he/she usually sit before running then jump, throw and progress through a number of substage of competency before they emerge as mature physical abilities. So in all this progression there are principle to help in the general human developmental processes. Which are:-
Physical development start from infancy a period the newborn child can breathe, see, hear and smell, feel pain, touch and change position then the early childhood which is between 3-5 years which based on psychoanalytic theory of Sigmud Freud is the stage to be regarded as the pre-school years then middle childhood (6-10 years) During this stage boy especially place more premium on physical strength, vigour and ordination then adolescent stage (12 years and above), Sigmud Freud called this “Genital Stage” a period when there is normal hetrosexual interest with the adolescence redefining his groups, defences and mode of adaptation then adulthood where decision is the yardstick for progression or distortion.
From the time one is born to the time of adulthood, ones capabilities for adapting to ones surrounding undergoes a lot of changes. As an infant, one might only make use of some reflex actions(sucking, grasping and swimming) to solve problem confronting him or her. But as an adolescent (adult), one use other different ways you can solve immediate problems, think of past issues or think of what might happen in the future or thing that might never happen.
At infant we usually have a first contact with one who cares for us and this is usually the mother. The ways the mother respond to us in time of needs, want or concern. Insensitively to their discomfort influence the child’s attitude toward others. However, according to Erikson and Bowlby believe that the child’s feeling of trust in other people are greatly shaped by the experience during the first year of life. The social character of the child begins with this mother-child relationship. Then, socialization set in with other people like teacher in school, peers, what the child read and hear, Religious bodies and relationship with external bodies.
The development of a child on morals, according to Kowberg on freedom of choice and not just the possession of what he described as “a bag of virtue” this means common, socially confronting virtues. In a moral dilemma just like any other type of situation of dilemma there is nothing like right answer.
Meanwhile, children should acquire honesty, Respect for the property of others, Respect for truth, Respect for other people’s feelings, Tolerance, sexual control as a moral behaviour.
I will use the confirmation of some psychologist (Chuahan 1981, Lovel 1983) to explain this;
Individual manifest certain type of emotions right from Birth
0-18 month : Excitement, disgust, delight, comfortable, fear, affection for adults, jealousy, Affection for other children.
18 month -4 year : The child laugh with joy when amused and cry for love and attention
4 – 11 years : Now the child is the primary school, he/she will increase opportunity to learn emotional reactions
Adolescence period :The emotional feelings are more intense and more enduring than in the younger age group.
The development of language from childhood to adulthood is posited with the differences in the arrangement of words within a sentence (Syntax) and the vocabulary chosen (Lexis) reflect different relationship between people of different social background and this difference has consequence for the maintenance of social control within the society